Kindergarten Mi’kmaw immersion program aims to keep the language strong in Listuguj, Que.

On a warm, clear day in February, Brenda Germain picks up a large hand drill and asks her students to gather around.

Drill in hand, she shows the children how to cut through the thick ice covering Chaleur Bay, on Quebec’s Gaspé coast.

Pase’g admirethe ice is this thick,” her colleague and aunt, Joyce Germain, tells the students as they kneel over the hole, hoping to catch some smelt, or kaqpesaw.

The class outing is being held entirely in Mi’kmaw — a language that Brenda Germain says she “didn’t speak a word” of, just a decade earlier.

“I spent 35 years of my life thinking, ‘ah man, I missed the boat,'” she said.

But her life — and her teaching career — took a sharp turn in 2018, when she switched roles in the classroom. Brenda Germain enrolled as a student in the Mi’kmaw adult immersion program, offered by the Elawsimgewei Gina’muo’guom Adult Education Center in Listuguj, Que.

In addition to the classes, “just from coming out on the land with [Miss] Joyce every day has taught me the language, she said.

“It’s super important to tell people: no matter how old you are, you can start somewhere.”

Joyce and Brenda Germain stand in front of the class with flash cards and photos.
Joyce Germain, left, will soon retire from teaching and her niece Brenda Germain, right, will be flying solo for the first time. (Julia Page/CBC)

Benefits of outdoor education

She is now not only fluent in Mi’kmaw but also at the forefront of language revitalization in Listuguj. Brenda Germain was instrumental in building the Forest Kindergarten program, which takes the classroom outside, centered around Mi’kmaw immersion.

She first pitched the idea to the school’s principal after seeing a short clip about outdoor learning in Germany and the Netherlands. The answer came the very next day: yes.

A base camp was built in the forest near the community. After their outings, the kindergarten students gather there at the end of the day, to reflect on what they’ve learned.

“It’s embedded in who we are and you can’t separate the two — outdoors and Mi’kmaw way,” Brenda Germain said.

Miss Joyce, in addition to being Brenda’s aunt, has also been a Mi’kmaw teacher for 23 years. She was involved with the development of Mi’kmaw learning at Alaqsitew Gitpu School from Day 1.

“My passion was to teach the language and it’s always been a part of me — and it’s part of our community,” she said.

Posters showing animals and parts of the body with the associated Mi'gmaq words line the walls.
The classroom at Alaqsitew Gitpu School is filled with photos and Mi’kmaw words. (Julia Page/CBC)

With the help of two teaching assistants, Joyce and Brenda Germain also conduct “mini-lessons” in small groups, exploring the wildlife and nature they find around them.

“Instead of having one teacher in front of the class and having 25 kids learn the same thing at the same time from the same person, they’re able to discover the outdoors,” said Brenda Germain.

Ta’s’gl Uggwatl geggungl? how many legs do they have? Talamugsit?what color is it?”

Before long, the teachers realized how easy it would be to fit the school curriculum into outdoor learning, by bringing back what they learned outdoors to classroom discussions.

“That’s where they gain all their vocabulary and understanding of the language,” said Joyce Germain.

Before introducing outdoor education, Brenda Germain said they used to spend more time correcting behavior. Now, both teachers feel the children are more willing to learn because they’re enjoying themselves.

“I have a lot of students who have learning disabilities or disabilities — from ADHD, autism — and they perform a lot better outdoors than they do indoors,” said Joyce Germain.

Young students play in the snow and smile for the camera.
Students at the Alaqsitew Gitpu School’s Forest Kindergarten program do most of their learning outside. (Julia Page/CBC)

Passing over the baton

Joyce Germain said she admires how quickly her niece Brenda caught on to the Mi’kmaw language, and is thankful she’ll be able to take over when she retires in a few years.

“She has very, very much potential for our community and is a good asset,” said Joyce Germain. “I think she’ll do really well with the program.”

Brenda Germain says she will miss Joyce having knowledge around her daily, but she thinks she has learned enough to teach side-by-side with her aunt “to hold the fort.”

“She’s really good at kicking me out and saying: ‘go, you can do it, Brenda,'” she laughed.

“It should be that way. She should feel so comfortable to retire, but we need to hold her as a knowledge keeper and hold her as an expert,” said Brenda Germain.

Brenda Germain sits at one end of the table, showing photos to her students.
The day after the ice fishing trip, Brenda Germain goes over the previous day’s lesson with the students. (Julia Page/CBC)

When Joyce leaves, Brenda Germain and her colleagues will continue to teach a new generation of students to count, name animals and speak about their feelings in Mi’kmaw.

A big step in itself, Brenda Germain recognizes.

“I never thought in a million years that sitting down to do homework with my children, it would be all in Mi’kmaw language.”

Breakaway8:14Kindergarten class from Listuguj heads outdoors to learn Mi’kmaw

Two teachers from the Mi’gmaq community of Listuguj took it upon themselves to design a classroom where kindergarten students could learn Mi’kmaw – with much of the learning happening outdoors. The CBC’s Nation Isaac stopped by the class and also took part in an ice fishing expedition to find out more.

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